Data analysis techniques

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This page collects information on data analysis techniques used in fusion research.

Temporal analysis

Linear analysis

Non-linear analysis



  • Causality detection[5]: the determination of a causal interaction between two fluctuating variables, based on, e.g., the Transfer Entropy

Spatial analysis

Most of the techniques listed under 'temporal analysis' can of course be applied to spatial data.

Spatio-temporal analysis

Image analysis

  • Twodimensional Fourier analysis
  • Twodimensional wavelet analysis
  • Event detection using thresholding
  • Optical flow (for movies)

Integrated data analysis

The goal of integrated data analysis is to combine the information from a set of diagnostics providing complementary information in order to recover the best possible reconstruction of the actual state of the system subjected to measurement.

See also

Error propagation


  1. I. Teliban, D. Block, A. Piel and F. Greiner, Improved conditional averaging technique for plasma fluctuation diagnostics, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49(2007) 485–497
  2. N. Huang and S. Shen, Hilbert-Huang transform and its applications (World Scientific, London, 2005) ISBN 978-9812563767
  3. B.A. Carreras et al., Reconstruction of intermittent waveforms associated with the zonal flow at the transition leading to the edge shear flow layer, Nucl. Fusion 51 (2011) 053022
  4. R. Sánchez et al., Quiet-time statistics: A tool to probe the dynamics of self-organized-criticality systems from within the strong overlapping regime, Phys. Rev. E 66, 036124 (2002)
  5. B.Ph. van Milligen, G. Birkenmeier, M. Ramisch, T. Estrada, C. Hidalgo, and A. Alonso, Causality detection and turbulence in fusion plasmas, Nucl. Fusion 54 (2014), 023011
  6. B.Ph. van Milligen, E. Sánchez, A. Alonso, M.A. Pedrosa, C. Hidalgo, A. Martín de Aguilera, A. López Fraguas, The use of the Biorthogonal Decomposition for the identification of zonal flows at TJ-II, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 57, 2 (2015) 025005